I've been writing automated tests for a few years now, and I have to confess that it's a technique that still fascinates me when it comes down to making a code base more maintainable. In this article, I'd like to share some of my experiences, as well as the lessons I've learned either from others or via trial and error.
After all these years, I've heard many good (and bad) reasons to write automated tests. On the positive side, writing automated tests can:
Make refactoring easier
Provide executable specification and documentation
Reduce the time of creating software
Reduce the costs of creating software
Sure, you could say those are true, but I want to give another perspective to all those reasons — a unified perspective if you will:
The only reason automated tests are valuable is to allow us to modify our own code later on.
In other words:
The only time a test will give value back is when we want to change our code.
Let's see how the classic arguments in favor of writing tests are connected to this premise:
Makes refactoring easier — You can change implementation details with confidence, leaving the public API untouched.
Avoids regressions — When do regressions occur? When you change your code.
Provides executable specification and documentation — When do you want to know more about how software actually works? When you want to modify it.
Reduces the time of creating software — How? By allowing you to modify your code faster, with the confidence that your tests will tell you when something went wrong.
Reduces the cost of creating software — Well, time is money.
Yes, all the reasons above are true at some point, but the reason that this pertains to us developers is that automated tests let us change stuff.
Note that I'm not including the design feedback of writing tests, as in TDD. That could be a separate conversation. We will be talking about tests, once they are written.
It seems then that writing tests and how to write them should be motivated by change.
An easy way to take this fact into account when writing a test is to always ask your tests these two questions:
"Are you going to fail (or pass) if I change my production code?"
"Is that a good reason for you to fail (or pass)?"
If you find a bad reason for your test to fail (or pass), fix it.
That way, when you change your code later on down the road, your tests will pass or fail only for good reasons, thus giving a better return than flakey tests that fail for the wrong reason.
Still, you may be wondering: "What's the big deal about that?"
Let's answer this question with another question: Why do our tests break when we change our code?
We agreed that the main purpose of having tests is so we can change our code with ease. If that's so, then how are all those red tests helping us? Those failing tests are nothing but noise — impediments to getting the job done. So, how do we do testing in a way that will help us?
It depends on the reason why we are changing the code.
Changing the Behavior of the Code
The starting point should always be green, i.e. all tests should pass.
If you want to change your code to change its behavior (i.e. changing what your code does) you would:
Find the test or tests that define the current behavior that you want to change.
Modify those tests to expect the new desired behavior.
Run the tests and see if those modified tests fail.
Update your code to make all tests pass again.
At the end of this process, we are back at square one — all tests pass, and we are ready to start over if needed.
Because you know exactly which tests failed and which modification of the code made them pass, you are confident that you only changed what you wanted to change. This is how automated tests help us modify our code — in this case, to change the behavior.
Note that it is OK to see a test failing, as long as it's only a test related to the behavior that we are updating.
Refactoring: Changing the Implementation of the Code — Leaving the Behavior Intact
Again, the starting point should always be green.
If all you want is to change the implementation of a piece of code to make it simpler, more performant, easy to extend, etc. (i.e. changing how your code does something but not what it does), this is the extensive list of steps to follow:
Modify your code without touching your tests at all.
Once your code is simpler, faster, or more flexible, your tests should remain just as they were — green. When refactoring, tests should only fail in the case that you made a mistake, such as changing the external behavior of your code. When that happens, you should reverse that mistake and go back to a green state.
Because your tests stayed green the whole time, you know that you didn't break anything. That's how automated tests let us modify our code.
In this case, it is not OK to see a test failing. It could mean that:
We accidentally changed the external behavior of the code. Good, our tests are helping us.
We didn't change the external behavior of the code. Bad, we got false negatives. This is where most of the trouble is.
We want our tests to aid in the processes described above. So let's see some specific tips that will help make our tests more cooperative.
Good Practices 101
Before jumping into how not to write your tests, I'd like to go over a few good practices really quick. There are five basic rules that every test should obey to be considered a good — or even a valid — test. There is a mnemonic for these five rules: F.I.R.S.T.
Tests should be:
Fast — tests should be able to be executed often.
Isolated — tests on their own cannot depend on external factors or on the result of another test.
Repeatable — tests should have the same result every time we run them.
Self-verifying — tests should include assertions; no human intervention needed.
Timely — tests should be written along with the production code.
To find out more about this set of rules, you can read this article by Tim Ottinger and Jeff Langr.
How do we maximize the outcome of our tests? In one sentence:
Don't couple your tests to implementation details.
Don't Test Private Methods
Private means private. Period. If you feel the need to test a private method, there is something conceptually wrong with that method. Usually it is doing too much to be a private method, which in turn violates the Single Responsibility Principle.
Today: Your class has a private method. It does plenty of stuff, so you decide to test it. You make that method public, just for testing purposes, even though it makes no sense to use that method on its own, as it's only meant to be used internally by other public methods of the same class. You write tests for that private (now technically public) method.
Tomorrow: You decide to modify what this method does, because of some change in the requirements (totally fine). You find out that some coworker is using that method from another class for something totally different because "it does what I need." After all, it was public, right? This private method is not part of the public API. You cannot modify this method without breaking your colleague's code.
What To Do: Extract that private method to a separate class, give that class a properly defined contract, and test it separately. When testing code that relies on this new class, you can provide a test double of that class if needed.
So, how do I test the private methods of a given class? Via the public API of its class. Always test your code via its public API. The public API of your code defines a contract, which is a well-defined set of expectations about how your code is going to act based on different inputs. The private API (private methods or even entire classes) does not define that contract and it is subject to change without notice, so your tests (or your colleagues) cannot rely on them.
By testing your private methods in this way, you will remain free to change your (truly) private code and the design of your code will improve by having smaller classes that do one thing and are properly tested.
Don't Stub Private Methods
Stubbing private methods has all the same caveats as exposing a private method for testing, but on top of that, doing this could be hard to debug. Usually, stubbing libraries rely on hacks to get the job done, making it hard to find out why a test is failing.
Also, when we stub a method, we should be doing it according to its contract. But a private method has no specified contract — that's mostly why it's private, after all. Since the behavior of a private method is subject to change without notice, your stub may diverge from reality, but your test will still pass. Horrendous. Let's see an example:
Today: The public method of a class relies on a private method of the same class. The private method foo never returns nil. Tests for the public method stub out the private method for convenience. When stubbing out method foo, you never consider making foo return nil, because it currently never happens.
Tomorrow: The private method changes and now it returns nil. It's a private method, so that's fine. Tests of the public method are never updated accordingly ("I'm changing a private method, so why should I update any test at all?"). The public method is now broken for the case in which the private method returns nil, but the tests still pass!
What To Do: Since foo is doing too much, extract that method to a new class and test it separately. Then, when testing bar, provide a test double for that new class.
Don't Stub External Libraries
Third-party code should never be mentioned directly in your tests.
Your networking code relies on the famous HTTP library
To avoid hitting the actual network (to make your tests fast and reliable),
you stub out the method
-[LSNetworking makeGETrequest:] of that library,
properly replacing its behavior (it calls the success callback with a
canned response) but without hitting the network.
You need to swap
LSNetworking with an alternative (it could be that
LSNetworking is no longer maintained or that you need to switch
to a more advanced library because it has that feature that you need, etc.).
It's a refactor, so you should not change your tests.
You replace the library.
Your tests fail because the dependency of the network is no longer being
-[LSNetworking makeGETrequest:] is no longer being called by
What To Do: Rely on umbrella stubbing to replace the entire functionality of that library during tests.
Umbrella stubbing (a term that I just made up) consists of stubbing out all the possible ways that your code may use, now and in the future, to get some task done, via a declarative API, agnostic to any implementation detail.
As in the example above, your code can rely on "HTTP library A" today, but there are other possible ways of making an HTTP request, right? Like "HTTP library B."
As an example, one solution that provides umbrella stubbing for networking code is my open-source project, Nocilla. With Nocilla, you can stub HTTP requests in a declarative fashion, without mentioning any HTTP library. Nocilla takes care of stubbing any HTTP library out there, so that you don't couple your tests to any implementation detail. This allows you to switch your networking stack without breaking your tests.
Another example could be stubbing out dates. There are many ways of getting the current time in most programming languages, but libraries like TUDelorean take care of stubbing every single time-related API so that you can simulate a different system time for testing purposes without coupling your tests to any of those multiple time APIs. This lets you refactor your implementation to a different time API without breaking your tests.
In realms other than HTTP or dates, where a variety of APIs may be available, you can use similar solutions to do umbrella stubbing, or you can create your own open-source solution and share it with the community, so that the rest of us can properly write tests.
If You Stub Out a Dependency, Do It Properly
This goes hand in hand with the previous point, but this problem is more
common. Our production code usually relies on dependencies to get something done. For instance, a dependency could help
us query a database. Often, these dependencies offer many ways of achieving
the exact same thing or, at least, with the same external behavior; in our
database example, you could use the
find method to retrieve a record by ID,
or use a
where clause to get the same record. The problem comes when we
only stub one of those possible mechanisms. If we only stub the
method — which is the one that our production code uses — but we don't stub
the other possibilities, like the
where clause, when we decide to
refactor our implementation from using
find to using
where, our test will
fail, even though the external behavior of our code hasn't changed.
UsersControllerclass relies on the
retrieve users from the database.
You are testing
UsersController and you stub out the
find method of the
UsersRepository class to make your tests run faster and in a deterministic
fashion, which is an awesome thing to do.
You decide to refactor
UsersController to use the new query syntax of
UsersRepository, which is more readable.
Because it's a refactoring, you should not touch your tests.
UsersController to use the more readable method
where, in order to find the
records of interest.
Now your tests are broken because they stub the method
find but not
Umbrella stubbing can help here in some cases, but for our case
UsersController class... well, there is no alternative library to
fetch my users from my database.
What To Do: Create an alternative implementation of the same class for testing purposes and use it as a test double.
To continue with our example, we should provide an
This in-memory alternative should comply to every single aspect of the
contract established by the original
UsersRepository class, except that
it stores data in memory to make our tests fast. This means that when
UsersRepository, you do the same with its in-memory version.
To make it very clear: yes, you now have to maintain two different
implementations of the same class.
You can now provide this lightweight version of your dependency as a test
double. The good thing is that it's a full implementation, so when you decide
to move your implementation from one method to the other (from
where, in our example) the test double being used will already
support that new method and your tests won't fail when you refactor.
There is nothing wrong with maintaining another version of your class. In my experience, it ends up requiring very little effort, and it definitely pays off.
You can also provide the lightweight version of your class as part of the production code, just like Core Data does with its in-memory version of the stack. Doing this could be of some use to someone.
Don't Test Constructors
Constructors are implementation details by definition and, since we agreed that we should decouple our tests from implementation details, you should not test constructors.
Furthermore, constructors should have no behavior and, since we agree that we should only test the behavior of our code, there is nothing to test.
Car, has one constructor.
You test that, once a
Car is constructed, its
Engine is not nil (because you
know that the constructor creates a new
Engine and assigns it to the
Engine turns out to be costly to construct, so you decide to
lazily initialize it the first time that the getter of
Engine is called.
(This is a totally fine thing to do.)
Your test for the constructor of the
Car class breaks because, upon
Car no longer has an
Engine, even though the
Another option is that your test does not fail because testing that
Car has an
Engine triggers the lazy load initialization of the
So my question is: What are you testing again?
What To Do:
Test how the public API of your class behaves when
constructing it in different ways. A silly example: test how the method
count of the class list behaves when the list is constructed with and
without items. Just note that you are testing the behavior of
and not the behavior of the constructor.
In the case that your class has more than one constructor, consider it a smell. Your class may be doing too much. Try to split it in smaller classes, but if there is a legitimate reason for your class to have multiple constructors, just follow the same piece of advice. Make sure you test the public API of that class, constructing it in different ways. In this case, test it using every constructor (i.e. when this class is in this initial state, it behaves like this, and when it's in this other initial state, it behaves like that).
Writing tests is an investment — we need to put in time in the form of writing and maintaining them. The only way we can justify such an investment is because we expect to get that time back. Coupling tests to implementation details will reduce the amount of value that our tests will provide, making that investment less worthwhile, or even worthless in some cases.
When writing tests, step back and ask yourself if those tests will maximize the outcome of your investment by checking if your tests could fail or pass for the wrong reason, either when refactoring, or when changing the behavior of the system.